So, what is Git in a nutshell? This is an important section to absorb, because if you understand what Git is and the fundamentals of how it works, then using Git. The second edition of this book is meant to address those example of Git hosting, I have decided to turn that part of the book into more. Access this book for free. ISBN ; This book is an open access book, you can download it for free on Softcover 44,95 €.

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Staged means that you have marked a modified file in its current version to go into your next commit snapshot.

You will see these hash values all over the place in Git because it uses them so much. You do a commit, which takes the files as they are in the staging area and stores that snapshot permanently to your Git directory.

Git – Git Basics

When you do actions in Git, nearly all of them only add data hook the Git database. And if it was changed since it was checked out but has not been staged, it is modified. The mechanism that Git uses for this checksumming is called a SHA-1 hash.

The staging area is a file, generally contained in your Git directory, that stores information about what will go into your next commit. You selectively stage just those changes you want to be part of your next commit, which adds only those changes to the staging area.


Git Has Integrity Everything in Git is checksummed before it is stored and is then referred to by that checksum. Git has three main states that your files can reside in: In fact, Git stores gotpro in its database not by file name but by the hash value of its contents. Git on the Server 4. Because you have the entire history of the project right there on your local disk, most operations seem almost instantaneous.

With Git, every time you commit, or save the state of your project, Git basically takes a picture of what boo, your files look like at that moment and stores a gitprk to that snapshot. So, what is Git in a nutshell? Git is a member of Software Freedom Conservancy, which handles legal and financial needs for the project.

This functionality is built into Git at the lowest levels and is integral to its philosophy. Instead, Git thinks of its data more like a series of snapshots of a miniature filesystem. In many other systems, doing so is either impossible or painful. This makes Gitprro more like a mini filesystem with some incredibly powerful tools built on top of it, rather than simply a VCS. The Git directory is where Git stores the metadata and object database for your project.

This is the most important part of Git, and it is what is copied when you clone a repository from another computer. This is a character string composed of hexadecimal characters 0—9 and a—f and calculated based on the contents of a file or directory structure in Git.


Pro Git, Second Edition

A SHA-1 hash looks something like this:. This means you see the project history almost instantly. Committed means that the data is safely stored in your local database. This leads us to the three main sections of a Git project: This is bokk important distinction between Git and nearly all other VCSs. Conservancy is currently raising funds to continue their mission. The major difference between Git and any other VCS Subversion and friends included is the way Git thinks about its data. You modify files in your working tree.

These boik systems CVS, Subversion, Perforce, Bazaar, and so on think of the information they store as a set of files and the changes made to each file over time this is commonly described as delta-based version control.

For a more in-depth look at how Git stores its data and how you can recover data that seems lost, see Undoing Things.

1.3 Getting Started – Git Basics

Modified means that you have changed the file but have not committed it to your database yet. It makes Git reconsider almost every aspect of version control that most other systems copied from bookk previous generation. This makes using Git a joy because we know we can experiment without the danger of severely screwing things up.